Location, Extent and Boundaries of India-
Indian sub continent-
Countries of Indian sub-continent-
- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka, although Sri Lanka is an island which is narrowly separated by the Palk Strait.
- India alone covers about three fourths of the area of Indian sub-continent and has common frontier with each one of them.
- India along with its five neighbours, forms a clearly identifiable geographical unit, with certain common cultural parameters.
- Since old times, the country has been known by various names such as Aryavarta, Bharat, Hindustan and lately India. The Indian Ocean or Hind Mahasagar has also been named after India - the only country to be so.
- According to the Constitution of India, the country is known as Bharat or India.
- India lies wholly in the Northern Hemisphere.
- The Indian mainland extends between 8°4' N to 37°6' N latitudes and from 68°7' E to 97°25' E longitudes.
- Thus the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is of about 29 degrees.
- It measures about 3,214 km from north to south and 2,933 km from east to west.
Degrees of Latitude
Distance between two
- The northern most point of the Indian mainland lies in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
- The southern most point of Indian mainland is Kanyakumari in Tamilnadu. However, the southern most point of the country as a whole lies further south in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is now called Indira Point. It is situated at 6°30'N latitude.
- The westernmost point of lndia lies in Gujarat.
- The eastern most of lndia lies in Arunachal Pradesh.
Zones in which India lies-
Real time difference between eastern and western extremities-
The standard meridian of India-
- The north-central part of India is broad while the southern part tapers down towards the Indian Ocean in the south. Thus, the northern part of the Indian Ocean has been divided into two, by the sheer presence of Indian Peninsula. The western part of northern Indian Ocean is called the Arabian Sea while the eastern part is called the Bay of Bengal.
- The total length of the coastline of India including the island groups is about 7,516.6 km.
- The Palk Strait separates Indian mainland from Sri Lanka. Structurally, Sri Lanka is an extension of the peninsular block of India.
Facts about Size of India-
- India holds for 2.42 percent of the world’s total land area; whereas it contains 16 percent of the world population.
- In area, India is the seventh largest country in the world.
- In population , India stands at second position, next only to China.
- The land frontiers of India measure 15,200 km.
- Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Myanmar and Bangladesh share common boundaries with India.
- The kingdom of Bhutan is situated in the Eastern Himalaya. It is a small country and the responsibility of its defense rests with India.
- Most of our boundary with Pakistan and Bangladesh is almost man-made. There is no mountain range or river to form a natural boundary.
- India stands at the head of the Indian Ocean that spans the continents of Asia, Africa and Oceania providing further links to other continents through the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean.
- India is the only country which shares its land frontiers with every member country of the Indian subcontinent.
- Calculation of Indian standard time- The variation in local time between the eastern and western extremities of India is of two hours. This has been minimized to a certain extent by adopting 82°30' E longitude as the Standard Meridian of India for calculating Indian standard time which we follow through our watches.