6/24/2014 10:24:00 am
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Some Features of Wetlands of Rajasthan:- 
(According to "National Wetland Atlas of Rajasthan Wetlands Atlas Published in August, 2010 by Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad)-
What are Wetlands-
Wetlands are one of the crucial natural resources. Wetlands are areas of land that are either temporarily or permanently covered by water. This means that a wetland is neither truly aquatic nor terrestrial; it is possible that wetlands can be both at the same time depending on seasonal variability. Thus, wetlands exhibit enormous diversity according to their genesis, geographical location, water regime and chemistry, dominant plants and soil or sediment characteristics. Because of their transitional nature, the boundaries of wetlands are often difficult to define. Wetlands do, however, share a few attributes common to all forms. Of these, hydrological structure (the dynamics of water supply, throughput, storage and loss) is most fundamental to the nature of a wetland system. It is the presence of water for a significant period of time which is principally responsible for the development of a wetland.
Classifications-
One of the first widely used classifications systems, devised by Cowardin et al, 1979, was associated to its hydrological, ecological and geological aspects, such as:
  • Marine (coastal wetlands including rock shores and coral reefs,
  • Estuarine (including deltas, tidal marshes, and mangrove swamps),
  • Lacustarine (lakes), riverine (along rivers and streams),
  • Palustarine ('marshy'- marshes, swamps and bogs).
Given these characteristics, wetlands support a large variety of plant and animal species adapted to fluctuating water levels, making the wetlands of critical ecological significance.
Utility of wetlands- 
Utility wise, wetlands directly and indirectly support millions of people in providing services such as-
  • Food, fiber and raw materials,
  • Storm and flood control,
  • Clean water supply,
  • Scenic beauty and
  • Educational and recreational benefits.
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment estimates conservatively that wetlands cover seven percent of the earth’s surface and deliver 45% of the world’s natural productivity and ecosystem services of which the benefits are estimated at $20 trillion a year (Source: www.MAweb.org).
Wetland Classification System-
1. Inland Wetlands-
            (i) Natural Inland Wetlands-
1.      Lakes
2.      Ox-Bow Lakes/ Cut-Off Meanders
3.      High altitude Wetlands
4.      Riverine Wetlands
5.      Waterlogged
6.      River/stream
(ii) Man-made Inland Wetlands-
1.      Reservoirs/ Barrages
2.      Tanks/Ponds
3.      Waterlogged
4.      Salt pans
2. Coastal Wetlands-
(i) Natural Coastal Wetlands-
1.      Lagoons
2.      Creeks
3.      Sand/Beach
4.      Intertidal mud flats
5.      Salt Marsh
6.      Mangroves
7.      Coral Reefs
(ii) Man-made Coastal Wetlands-
1.      Salt pans
2.      Aquaculture ponds
Definitions of wetland categories used-
For ease of understanding, definitions of wetland categories and their typical appearance on satellite imagery is given below:
(i) Natural Inland Wetlands-
1.      Lakes:- Larger bodies of standing water occupying distinct basins (Reid et al, 1976). These wetlands occur in natural depressions and normally fed by streams/rivers.
2.      Ox-bow lakes/ Cut off meanders:- A meandering stream may erode the outside shores of its broad bends, and in time the loops may become cut-off, leaving basins. The resulting shallow crescent-shaped lakes are called oxbow lakes.
3.      High Altitude lakes:- These lakes occur in the Himalayan region. Landscapes around high lakes are characterized by hilly topography. Otherwise they resemble lakes in the plain areas. For keeping uniformity in the delineation of these lakes contour line of 3000 m above msl will be taken as reference and all lakes above this contour line will be classified as high altitude lakes.
4.      Riverine Wetlands:- Along the major rivers, especially in plains water accumulates leading to formation of marshes and swamp. Swamps are ‘Wetland dominated by trees or shrubs’ (U.S. Definition). In Europe, a forested fen (a peat accumulating wetland that has no significant inflows or outflows and supports acidophilic mosses, particularly Sphagnum) could be called a swamp.
5.      Marsh:- A frequently or continually inundated wetland characterized by emergent herbaceous vegetation adapted to saturated soil conditions. In European terminology a marsh has a mineral soil substrate and does not accumulate peat (Mitsch and Gosselink, 1986).
6.      Waterlogged:- Said of an area in which water stands near, at, or above the land surface, so that the roots of all plants except hydrophytes are drowned and the plants die (Margarate et al, 1974). Floods or unlined canal seepage and other irrigation network may cause water logging.
7.      River/stream:- Rivers are linear water features of the landscape. Rivers that are wider than the mapping unit will be mapped as polygons. Its importance arises from the fact that many stretches of the rivers in Indo-Gangetic Plains and peninsular India are declared important national and international wetlands (Ex. The river Ganga between Brajghat and Garh Mukteshwar, is a Ramsar site, Ranganthattu on the Cavery river is a bird sanctuary etc.).
(ii) Man-made Inland Wetlands-
  1. Reservoir- A pond or lake built for the storage of water, usually by the construction of a dam across a river (Margarate et al, 1974).
  2. Barrage- Dykes are constructed in the plain areas over rivers for creating Irrigation/water facilities. Such water storage areas develop into wetlands (Harike Barrage on Satluj – a Ramsar site, Okhla barrage on the Yamuna etc. – a bird sanctuary).
  3. Tanks/Ponds- A term used in Ceylon and the drier parts of Peninsular India for an artificial pond, pool or lake formed by building a mud wall across the valley of a small stream to retain the monsoon (Margarate et al, 1974). Ponds Generally, suggest a small, quiet body of standing water, usually shallow enough to permit the growth of rooted plants from one shore to another (Reid et al, 1976). In this category Industrial ponds/mining pools mainly comprising Abandoned Quarries are also included (Quarry is defined as "An open or surface working or excavation for the extraction of stone, ore, coal, gravel or minerals." In such pits water accumulate (McGraw Hill Encyclopaedia of Environmental Sciences, 1974), Ash pond/Cooling pond (The water body created for discharging effluents in industry, especially in thermal power plants (Encyclopaedic Directory of Environment, 1988) and Cooling pond: An artificial lake used for the natural cooling of condenser-cooling water serving a conventional power station (Encyclopaedic Directory of Environment, 1988). These ponds can be of any shape and size.
  4. Waterlogged- Man-made activities like canals cause water logging in adjacent areas due to seepage especially when canals are unlined. Such areas can be identified on the images along canal network.
  5. Salt pans- Inland salt pans in India occur in Rajasthan (Sambhar lake). These are shallow rectangular man-made depressions in which saline water is accumulated for drying in the sun for making salt.
(iii) Natural Coastal Wetlands-
  1. Lagoons/Backwaters:- Such coastal bodies of water, partly separated from the sea by barrier beaches or bass of marine origin, are more properly termed lagoons. As a rule, lagoons are elongate and lie parallel to the shoreline. They are usually characteristic of, but not restricted to, shores of emergence. Lagoons are generally shallower and more saline than typical estuaries (Reid et al, 1976).
Backwater:- A creek, arm of the sea or series of connected lagoons, usually parallel to the coast, separated from the sea by a narrow strip of land but communicating with it through barred outlets (Margarate et al, 1974).
  1. Creek:- A notable physiographic feature of salt marshes, especially low marshes. These creeks develop as do rivers "with minor irregularities sooner or later causing the water to be deflected into definite channels" (Mitsch and Gosselink, 1986). Creeks will be delineated, however, their area will not be estimated.
  2. Sand/Beach:- Beach is an un-vegetated part of the shoreline formed of loose material, usually sand that extends from the upper berm (a ridge or ridges on the backshore of the beach, formed by the deposit of material by wave action, that marks the upper limit of ordinary high tides and wave wash to low water mark(Clark,1977).Beach comprising rocky material is called rocky beach.
  3. Intertidal mudflats:- Most unvegetated areas that are alternately exposed and inundated by the falling and rising of the tide. They may be mudflats or sand flats depending on the coarseness of the material of which they are made (Clark, 1977).
  4. Salt Marsh:- Natural or semi-natural halophytic grassland and dwarf brushwood on the alluvial sediments bordering saline water bodies whose water level fluctuates either tidally or non- tidally (Mitsch and Gosselink, 1986).
  5. Mangroves:- The mangrove swamp is an association of halophytic trees, shrubs, and other plants growing in brackish to saline tidal waters of tropical and sub-tropical coastlines (Mitsch and Gosselink, 1986).
  6. Coral reefs:- Consolidated living colonies of microscopic organisms found in warm tropical waters. The term coral reef, or organic reef is applied to the rock- like reefs built-up of living things, principally corals. They consist of accumulations of calcareous deposits of corals and corraline algae with the intervening space connected with sand, which consists largely of shells of foraminefera. Present reefs are living associations growing on this accumulation of past (Clark, 1977).
(iv) Man-made Coastal Wetlands-
1.      Salt pans: An undrained usually small and shallow rectangular, man-made depression or hollow in which saline water accumulates and evaporates leaving a salt deposit (Margarate et al, 1974). Salt pans are square or rectangular in shape.
2.      Aquaculture ponds: Aquaculture is defined as "The breeding and rearing of fresh-water or marine fish in captivity. Fish farming or ranching". The water bodies used for the above are called aquaculture ponds (Encyclopaedic Directory of Environment, 1988). Aquaculture ponds are geometrical in shape usually square or rectangular.
Wetlands of Rajasthan:-
Area estimates of various wetland categories for Rajasthan have been carried out using GIS layers of wetland boundary, water-spread, aquatic vegetation and turbidity. Total 12625 wetlands have been mapped at 1:50,000 scale in the state. In addition, 34123 small wetlands (< 2.25 ha) have also been identified. Total wetland area estimated is 782314 ha that is around 2.29 per cent of the geographic area (see Table). Rivers/ streams contributed 39.95% to the total wetland area. The reservoir/barrages with 190600 ha (24.36% area) is the second major wetland category. Area under Tanks/ponds is 151027 ha (19.31%). Graphical distribution of wetland type is shown in Figure 10. Open water spread is more during in Post-monsoon (368129 ha) than during Pre-monsoon (158696 ha). Aquatic vegetation is slightly more during Pre-monsoon (5166 ha) than in Post-monsoon (4102 ha). The qualitative turbidity of water is low in both the seasons.
         Area estimates of wetlands in Rajasthan-
Sr. No
Wetland Category
Number of Wetlands
Total Wetland Area in ha
% of wetland area
Open Water
Post-monsoon Area in ha
Pre-monsoon Area in ha
(i) Natural Inland Wetlands -

1
Lakes/Ponds
65
38269
4.89
28122
21711

2
Waterlogged
61
16856
2.15
12933
5091

3
River/Stream
648
312570
39.95
52080
28021
(ii) Man-made Inland Wetlands -

1
Reservoirs/Barrages
979
190600
24.36
165938
71546

2
Tanks/Ponds
10731
151027
19.31
100594
18659

3
Waterlogged
101
7636
0.98
4423
1284

4
Salt pans
39
12283
1.57
4030
2433
Total - Inland
12624
729241
93.22
368120
148745
2. Coastal Wetlands - Natural

1
Intertidal mud flats
1
18950
2.42
9
9951
Total - Coastal
1
18950
2.42
9
9951
Sub-Total
12625
748191
95.64
368129
158696
Wetlands (<2.25 ha), mainly Tanks
34123
34123
4.36
-
-
Total
46748
782314
100.00
368129
158696

District-wise wetland statistics of Rajasthan-
(Source- NATIONAL WETLAND ATLAS of RAJASTHAN made by Space Applications centre, Indian Space Research Organisation- ISRO, Ahmedabad–380 015)

                  
Sr. No.
District
Geographic Area*
(sq. km)
Wetland Area
(ha)
% of total Wetland Area
% of district Geographic Area
1
Ganganagar
7984
1708
0.22
0.21
2
Hanumangarh
12645
6549
0.84
0.52
3
Bikaner
27244
2666
0.34
0.10
4
Churu
16830
1368
0.17
0.08
5
Jhunjhunun
5928
5319
0.68
0.90
6
Alwar
8380
12774
1.63
1.52
7
Bharatpur
5066
10415
1.33
2.06
8
Dhaulpur
3084
9370
1.2
3.04
9
Karauli
5530
10042
1.28
1.82
10
Sawai Madhopur
4500
22606
2.89
5.02
11
Dausa
3429
11720
1.5
3.42
12
Jaipur
11152
41352
5.29
3.71
13
Sikar
7732
5388
0.69
0.70
14
Nagaur
17718
30876
3.95
1.74
15
Jodhpur
22850
17032
2.18
0.75
16
Jaisalmer
38401
24876
3.18
0.65
17
Barmer
28387
44638
5.71
1.57
18
Jalore
10640
54440
6.96
5.12
19
Sirohi
5136
19259
2.46
3.75
20
Pali
12387
50304
6.43
4.06
21
Ajmer
8481
32167
4.11
3.79
22
Tonk
7194
46875
5.99
6.52
23
Bundi
5550
21238
2.71
3.83
24
Bhilwara
10455
72563
9.27
6.94
25
Rajsamand
3853
20435
2.61
5.30
26
Udaipur
13430
42292
5.41
3.15
27
Dungarpur
3770
21278
2.72
5.64
28
Banswara
5037
32468
4.15
6.45
29
Chittaurgarh
10856
55537
7.1
5.12
30
Kota
5446
16316
2.09
3.00
31
Baran
6955
22602
2.89
3.25
32
Jhalawar
6219
15911
2.03
2.56
33
Pratapgarh*
*
*
*
*
Total
342269
782384
100
2.29
      *Data are prior to formation of Pratapgarh
                      

  District-wise wetland statistics of Rajasthan in descending order-

Sr. No.
District
Wetland Area (ha)
1
Bhilwara
72563
2
Chittaurgarh
55537
3
Jalore
54440
4
Pali
50304
5
Tonk
46875
6
Barmer
44638
7
Udaipur
42292
8
Jaipur
41352
9
Banswara
32468
10
Ajmer
32167
11
Nagaur
30876
12
Jaisalmer
24876
13
Sawai Madhopur
22606
14
Baran
22602
15
Dungarpur
21278
16
Bundi
21238
17
Rajsamand
20435
18
Sirohi
19259
19
Jodhpur
17032
20
Kota
16316
21
Jhalawar
15911
22
Alwar
12774
23
Dausa
11720
24
Bharatpur
10415
25
Karauli
10042
26
Dhaulpur
9370
27
Hanumangarh
6549
28
Sikar
5388
29
Jhunjhunun
5319
30
Bikaner
2666
31
Ganganagar
1708
32
Churu
1368
33
Pratapgarh*
*
 *Data are prior to formation of Pratapgarh
Graphical Representation-

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राजस्थान सम्बन्धी प्रामाणिक ज्ञान को साझा करने के इस प्रयास को आप सब पाठकों का पूरा समर्थन प्राप्त हो रहा है। कृपया आगे भी सहयोग देते रहे। आपके सुझावों का हार्दिक स्वागत है। कृपया प्रतिक्रिया अवश्य दें। धन्यवाद।

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राजस्थान सामान्य ज्ञान (331) Rajasthan GK (295) GK (189) सामान्य ज्ञान (139) क्विज (130) Quiz (111) राजस्थान समसामयिक घटनाचक्र (95) Rajasthan History (79) समसामयिक घटनाचक्र (75) राजस्थान की योजनाएँ (52) समसामयिकी (44) General Knowledge (43) राजस्थान का इतिहास (42) Science GK (38) विज्ञान क्विज (36) योजनाएँ (35) Science Quiz (34) सामान्य विज्ञान (30) Geography of Rajasthan (25) Question and Answer (20) राजस्थान का भूगोल (19) राजस्थान के मेले (19) राजस्थान के किले (18) Forts of Rajasthan (17) Welfare plans of Rajasthan (16) राजस्थान के दर्शनीय स्थल (15) राजस्थानी साहित्य (15) प्रतिदिन क्विज (14) राजस्थान के लोक नाट्य (14) राजस्थान की कला (13) राजस्थान के प्राचीन मंदिर (13) राजस्थान के मंदिर (12) राजस्थानी भाषा (11) राजस्थान के तीर्थ स्थल (10) राजस्थान के लोक वाद्य (9) लोक देवता (9) Folk Musical Instruments of Rajasthan (8) Minerals of Rajasthan (8) राजस्थान के अनुसन्धान केंद्र (8) राजस्थान के प्रमुख पर्व एवं उत्सव (8) राजस्थान के हस्तशिल्प (8) GK राजस्थान समसामयिक घटनाचक्र (7) राजस्थान की चित्रकला (7) विज्ञान सामान्य ज्ञान (7) Tourism (6) अनुसंधान केन्द्र (6) राजस्थान के कलाकार (6) राजस्थान के खिलाड़ी (6) राजस्थान के लोक नृत्य (6) राजस्थान सरकार मंत्रिमंडल (6) होली है (6) Fairs of Rajasthan (5) Geography of India (5) राजस्थान की जनजातियां (5) राजस्थान की नदियाँ (5) राजस्थान की स्थापत्य कला (5) राजस्थान के ऐतिहासिक स्थल (5) राजस्थान साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार (5) Rivers of Rajasthan (4) राजस्थान में प्रजामण्डल आन्दोलन (4) राजस्थान रत्न पुरस्कार (4) राजस्थानी साहित्य की प्रमुख रचनाएं (4) forest of Rajasthan (3) अनुप्रति योजना (3) राजस्थान की जनसंख्या (3) राजस्थान के राज्यपाल (3) राजस्थान के संग्रहालय (3) राजस्थान सरकार के उपक्रम (3) राजस्थान साहित्य अकादमी (3) Handicrafts of Rajasthan (2) Metalic Minerals of Rajasthan (2) Ministers of Govt of India (2) Tourist Circuits (2) जिलानुसार झील व बाँध (2) जिलावार तहसीलों की सूची (2) भूकंप (2) राजस्थान की प्रसिद्ध दरगाहें (2) राजस्थान की मीनाकारी (2) राजस्थान की हवेलियां (2) राजस्थान के आभूषण (2) राजस्थान के जिले (2) राजस्थान के जैन तीर्थ (2) राजस्थान के महल (2) राजस्थान के महोत्सव (2) राजस्थान के रीति-रिवाज (2) राजस्थान के लोक सभा सदस्य (2) राजस्थान मदरसा बोर्ड (2) राजस्थान में कृषि (2) राजस्थान में पशुधन (2) राजस्थान में प्राचीन सभ्यताएँ (2) राजस्‍व मण्‍डल राजस्‍थान (2) राष्ट्रीय वीरता पुरस्कार (2) Livestock in Rajasthan (1) Major Dialects of Rajasthani (1) folk art (1) अपराजिता (1) क्षेत्रीय सांस्कृतिक केन्द्र (1) तलवारों से गैर (1) बिजौलिया किसान आंदोलन (1) बूंदी का किसान आंदोलन (1) बैराठ की सभ्यता (1) भारत की मृदा (1) भारत की स्थिति (1) भारत के उपग्रह (1) भारत के कमांडर-इन-चीफ (1) भारतीय अन्तरिक्ष कार्यक्रम (1) भारतीय मूर्तिकला (1) मीणा आन्दोलन (1) मीणाओं के आराध्य भूरिया बाबा (1) मौर्य तथा प्राचीन राजस्थान (1) रणकपुर (1) राजकीय संग्रहालय अजमेर (1) राजकीय संग्रहालय आहाड़-उदयपुर (1) राजपूताना में 1857 की क्रांति (1) राजपूतों की उत्पत्ति के मत (1) राजसमन्द का राजप्रशस्ति शिलालेख (1) राजस्थान का एकीकरण (1) राजस्थान का खजुराहो जगत का अंबिका मंदिर (1) राजस्थान का चौहान वंश (1) राजस्थान का जलियावाला बाग हत्याकांड (1) राजस्थान का नामकरण (1) राजस्थान का प्रथम मसाला पार्क (1) राजस्थान का राज्य पक्षी गोडावण (1) राजस्थान का राठौड़ वंश- (1) राजस्थान का वैभवशाली मूर्तिशिल्प (1) राजस्थान की खारे पानी की झीले (1) राजस्थान की प्रसिद्ध बावड़ियां (1) राजस्थान की मृदा (1) राजस्थान की वन सम्पदा (1) राजस्थान की वेशभूषा (1) राजस्थान की सीमा (1) राजस्थान की स्थिति एवं विस्तार (1) राजस्थान के अधात्विक खनिज (1) राजस्थान के उद्योग (1) राजस्थान के कला एवं संगीत संस्थान (1) राजस्थान के चित्र संग्रहालय (1) राजस्थान के तारागढ़ किले (1) राजस्थान के धरातलीय प्रदेश (1) राजस्थान के धात्विक खनिज (1) राजस्थान के प्रमुख व्यक्तियों के उपनाम (1) राजस्थान के प्रमुख शिलालेख (1) राजस्थान के प्रसिद्ध साके एवं जौहर (1) राजस्थान के लोक संत (1) राजस्थान के लोकगीत (1) राजस्थान के विधानसभाध्यक्ष (1) राजस्थान के विविध रंग का रिकार्ड (1) राजस्थान के संभाग (1) राजस्थान के संस्थान (1) राजस्थान निवेश संवर्धन ब्यूरो (1) राजस्थान बजट 2011-12 (1) राजस्थान बार काउंसिल (1) राजस्थान में गौ-वंश (1) राजस्थान में पंचायतीराज (1) राजस्थान में परम्परागत जल प्रबन्धन (1) राजस्थान में प्रथम (1) राजस्थान में भारतीय पुरातत्व सर्वेक्षण विभाग द्वारा संरक्षित स्मारक (1) राजस्थान में वर्षा (1) राजस्थान में सडक (1) राजस्थान सुनवाई का अधिकार (1) राजस्थानी की प्रमुख बोलियां (1) राजस्थानी भाषा का वार्ता साहित्य (1) राजस्थानी साहित्य का काल विभाजन- (1) राजा अजीतसिंह (1) राज्य की जलवायु (1) राज्य ग्रामीण विकास संस्थान (1) राज्य महिला आयोग (1) राज्य वित्त आयोग (1) राज्य सभा सदस्य (1) रावण का श्राद्ध (1) राष्ट्रीय ऊष्ट्र अनुसंधान केन्द्र (1) राष्ट्रीय कृषि बीमा योजना (1) राष्ट्रीय पर्यटन पुरस्कार (1) राष्ट्रीय बाल विज्ञान कांग्रेस (1) राष्ट्रीय हस्त शिल्प पुरस्कार (1) लैला मजनूं की मज़ार का मेला (1) विजय सिंह पथिक (1) संसदीय सचिव (1) हेरिटेज वॉक एट फोर्ट कुम्भलगढ़ (1)
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